One of the sites I work with has recently started to get DoS'd. It started out at 30k RPS and now it's at 50k/min. The IP's are pretty much all unique, not in the same subnet, and are in multiple countries. They only request the main page. Any tips on how to stop this?
The servers are running on Linux with the Apache as the web server.
You're not just trying to withstand a DoS, you're trying to withstand a DDoS, which is distributed and much more difficult to deal with.
Essentially, you're trying to identify illegitimate traffic and block them. Ideally, you want to null route this traffic (even better get your upstream providers to null route it.)
The first port of call is identification. You need to find some way to identify the traffic that is being sent to your host. Whether it's a common user agent, whether it's the fact that they're not actually using a proper browser (HINT: do they act like proper browsers - i.e. follow 301 redirects), whether all requests flood in at the exact same time or by how many requests each IP is hitting your server per hour.
You cannot block them without identifying them and you need to find some way of doing that.
Those DDoS mitigation tools essentially do the same thing, except in real time and cost a bomb. Half of the time there's false positives or the DDoS is so big it doesn't matter anyways, so be careful where you put your money here if you do decide to invest in one of them either now or in the future.
Remember: 1. IDENTIFY 2. BLOCK. 1 is the hard part.
Does your front-end router/load-balancer not have DOS-attack management? Ours does and it makes a world of difference
You're assuming that this is an intentional DDoS. The first thing to try is changing the IP address. If it's not in fact intentional, then it will stop.
Where would these requests be coming from if it's not intentional? It could be random, or it could be a mistaken target. Unlikely, but worth a try.
Are you sure you're not just getting loads of legitimate traffic? Maybe you've been slashdotted, or something. Try looking at the referrers in the logs.
You can ask your upstream provider to ask their upstream to assist. Lets say for instance that you run a website with UK users only. Then you can check where the traffic in general originates from using some whois database. Lets say for instance that a significant amount of your unwanted traffic happens to originate from russia, china and/or korea. Then you can call up your upstream provider and have them call theirs to have them nullroute your IP addresses temporarily from these areas, assuming they have routers close to the sources.
THis isnt a long term solution but it helps if your userbase is clustered in a few geographical areas. In the past Ive helped customers like this, simply not announcing them to foregin peers, just national ones. THis did take some of their business away (users that found them unreachable because they werent available internationally anymore) but its alot better than just beeing out of service alltogeather.
But at the end of the day this is more of a desperate act. But its better to cut of a limb than loose the body.
If youre in luck your upstream providers provider has the equipment and are willing to help you filter most of the undesired traffic away.
Good luck :-)